Runes on King & Queen of Arendelle’s Gravestones

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Aside from Deciphering the Runes Book in Disney’s Frozen, I’ve been trying to decipher the runes on King & Queen of Arendelle’s gravestones too. But could not manage to get the good quality picture of that scene until I found this post on reddit. The Korean source has better quality picture than I’ve ever had and that web page also deciphered the runes and reveals the name of King & Queen of Arendelle as Akðar and Iðunn.


I agree to the writer of that page that the Queen’s name was “Iðunn” but as I researched for male Nordic names compare to the transliteration, I have a slightly different assumption on the King’s name. I also think I have a more suited translation for the second line of both stones. Here is my take.

stones zoom
Runes Transliterate Old Norse English
Left stone – Line 1
ᛁᚦᚢᚾ iþun Iðunn Idun
ᛏᚱᚢᛏᚾᛁᚴ trutnik dróttning queen
Left stone – Line 2
ᚼᚢᚾ hun hon she
ᛏᚢ tu died
i í in
ᚼᛅᚠᛁ hafi hafi the sea
Right stone – Line 1
ᛅᚴᚦᚬᚱ akþąr Agðar Agdar
ᚴᚢᚾᚢᚴᛦ kunukR konungr king
Right stone – Line 2
ᚼᚬᚾ hąn hann he
ᛏᚢ tu died
i í in
ᚼᛅᚠᛁ hafi hafi the sea

(The letter ð is pronounced like ‘th’ in ‘this’. Its anglicized form can be th, d, or dh though I choose ‘d’ here as it’s more common and simple. The same way most people prefer ‘Odin’ than ‘Othin’ or ‘Odhin’)
(Chrome browser may not render runic font properly. If you don’t see runic characters in the table above, try other browser)

“Iðunn” is no doubt a good name for the Queen. But ‘akþár’ is the puzzle. It might be “Akþar” or “Akðar” but it doesn’t seem to be a name. “Akhtar” sounds more like a real name but it’s quite Eastern and I don’t think the consonants Akthar supposed to be switched to Akhtar. Per my assumption, “Eggþór”, sounds uncommon and strange to me even I don’t know much Nordic. Yet it is by far the best Nordic name I can find that matches ‘akþár’ runes. Some believes it rhymes with a more common Icelandic name “Garðar” but it against the ‘akþár’ runes. Maybe I’ve misread the runes. I think they are ᛅᚴᚦᚬᚱ but they’re still too blurry to be sure. Maybe they are something else, I don’t know.

4 Apr 2014 Update: I think I was wrong about the name “Eggþór”. I just found that there is a male Nordic name “Agdar” which is the modern form of Old Norse “Agðar” and that perfectly matches the runes. So this time I am quite confident to state that the King’s name was “Agðar”.
And for further reference. “Iðunn” is a Norse goddess’ name; means “ever young”. “Agðar”, a short and masculine form of ‘Agatha’, means “good, honorable”.

5 Apr 2014 Update: What I’d called “gravestones” should actually be “memorial stones” because the bodies are not actually buried there, so they are not graves.


21 thoughts on “Runes on King & Queen of Arendelle’s Gravestones

    Annahu-Akbar said:
    1 April 2014 at 18:31

    I am the poster of that link.
    Thanks to thou, I could learn so many way by thee.

    But I cannot think other way except it :
    second line of the king’s gravestone is ᚼᚢᚾ ᛏᚢ ᛁ ᚼᛅᚠᛁ.

      panya responded:
      2 April 2014 at 09:36

      I’m too not sure about that because the king’s gravestone’s quite hard to read. So I’d just presumed from the grammar that there should be the masculine pronoun, “hann”.

        Annahu-Akbar said:
        2 April 2014 at 17:54

        I agree with thou that the letter says “hann”.
        But according to screenshot, it is ᚼᚢᚾ ᛏᚢ ᛁ ᚼᛅᚠᛁ.
        I surely guess it may be mistake of graphic team.

    frozenmemes said:
    3 April 2014 at 12:30

    I’ve been scouring the internet for translations of the Furthark script in Frozen, and stumbled upon your blog. Would you mind if I shared your translations on tumblr? I’ll link back with credit of course! 🙂

      panya responded:
      3 April 2014 at 15:48

      No problem. Actually I wrote my tumblr posts about this sometimes ago, but feel free to write yours.

    sukminjung said:
    4 April 2014 at 19:49

    thank you for your effort! love you, 🙂 El-Men

    sukminjung said:
    4 April 2014 at 19:51

    From south korea,
    Korean Frozen fan web site 🙂

    Annahu-Akb said:
    5 April 2014 at 02:29

    Finally it’s turned out 『ᚼᚬᚾ ᛏᚢ ᛁ ᚼᛅᚠᛁ』
    All thanks for thee and thy effort!

    Kim Yusik said:
    5 April 2014 at 16:41

    Coooool !! El-Men

    […] the memorial stones of the King and the Queen, I found two good ones here: The runes in the book // The runes on the stones. Also the bishop talks in Old Nordic during the coronation, which fits the […]

    elvan said:
    7 October 2014 at 04:24

    hey there 🙂 i’m trying to decipher these runes but i failed so far XD maybe you could help me?
    there are runes i cannot find anywhere so i don’t know if these even make any sense but since its from once upon a time i don’t think they have no meaning. i’d really appreciate your help, thanks anyways!

      panya responded:
      7 October 2014 at 09:04

      They seem not to be the Nordic Runes. Also the inscription on the memorial stones in the opening scene of ‘Two sisters’ in OUAT (as I seen in sneak peek) which look pretty much like Elder Futhark but I cannot read a word. Don’t know if they have any meaning.

      panya responded:
      12 October 2014 at 08:56

      You might be interested in my new post about some runes used in OUAT ss4

    […] a blogger has already translated the book and the stones from Younger Futhark to Old Norse and into English.  It’s due to her work and that of a […]

    […] peek of this scene quite a while. They seem to be Elder Futhark runes which are different from the movie (see my old post about this). But due to the strange spelling and the video was too blur, I couldn’t make it out. Until […]

    Alva said:
    9 April 2015 at 23:33

    I am Scandinavian and Adgar and Idun are still pretty common names here, so I’m pretty sure you are right 🙂 Also it’s really cool to have the runes spelled out in Old Norse, cause even though it is from 400 years ago you can totally understand (if you speak a nordic language)!

    Alva said:
    9 April 2015 at 23:43

    For me “hann dó i hafi” would be “han dog i havet” which sounds almost the same!

    Alina said:
    28 March 2016 at 12:52

    Weird that they did not put tense… And I’m pretty sure “dø” (die) has always had a hard D. Not that the rest of the movie is particularly accurate to anything Nordic… just beginning with the clothes…

    Werine said:
    23 August 2016 at 08:45

    There’s “Agnarr”
    not “Agdar”

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